Hunting Hazards to Avoid for a Successful Season

‘Tis the peak of hunting season.

Hunters far and wide have successfully exempt themselves from Holiday gatherings to pursue their passion. treestand-1-300x300

Given this feat, we want to ensure optimal success and the best holiday hunting experience possible by helping hunters avoid some of the most common hunting mishaps identified in scientific studies, seen in emergency centers and reported among hunters in the field.

Among the most reported hunting accidents include:

  • Hunting/Tree Stand Accidents
  • Misfire/Shooting Accidents
  • Field Dressing Dangers

According to a recent study, “hunting mishaps most frequently occurred because of overexcitement, unfamiliarity with equipment, or carelessness.” The study, which reviewed the hospital records of 100 male patients between the ages of 10 and 78 showed a wide variety of injuries resulting from hunting activities.  “Almost half of the patients were injured during a 9-day gun deer hunting season.”  The study concluded that while many of the injuries were minor, serious morbidity with potential long-term disability and costs in time and money can occur [1].

Tree Stand Accidents

Tree stands situated 20-30 feet in the air present a hazard potentially as dangerous as the weapons accompanying hunters in the trek up and down.

According to Tree Stand Safety Awareness (TSSA), tree stand accidents are the number one cause of serious injury and death to deer hunters – estimating that more than one-third of hunters who use tree stands will be involved in a fall sometime in their hunting careers [2].

While broken bones are very common following a fall from a stand (arm fractures, hip fractures, as well as injuries to the head, neck and spine), others less frequently discussed involve jewelry/accessories.

A potentially limb and life-threatening injury that is completely avoidable among hunters involves jewelry/accessories – watches and rings in particular.  During a slip or fall from a stand, these objects can catch on parts of the stand, as well as nails and tree branches causing serious damage to the affected limb.  The catch/pull/hanging of the watch or ring during a fall, traumatically impacts the soft tissue of the impacted region.  This can result in a severe wrist fracture for watch wearers and traumatic ring avulsion for ring wearers, which can strip tendons and nerves from the bones of the finger.

The severity of either injury is long lasting – surgery and rehabilitation required in both cases. Additionally, hunters are often located in remote areas, and treatment of such a severe injury is delayed – impacting outcome.

Hunters are urged to ensure tree stand safety by wearing a full body harness and leaving watches and rings at home.  A system of communication with fellow hunters is also encouraged should a mishap occur.

Misfire/Shooting Accidents

Many of the injuries seen during hunting season involve a shooting accident.  These accidents often occur when hunters are overly eager and fail to adhere to a basic safety protocol – proper attire, weapon check and communication.  Shooting accidents also occur when drowsy hunters fall from their stands with weapon in hand.  These accidents can cause self-inflicted injuries as well as injury to nearby hunters.

According to the International Hunter Education Association (IHEA), approximately 1000 people in the US and Canada are accidentally shot by hunters every year – just under a hundred of those accidents are fatalities.  Hunter safety courses are strongly encouraged and required in some cases before hunt participation.

Field Dressing Dangers

Another opportunity for injury occurs during the process of field dressing.  Not only is the rapid cleaning of hunted game essential to prevent bacteria from growing on the surface of the carcass (at initial wound site or while gutting) and contaminating the meat, but also to reduce risk of dangerous infection if cut during the process.

Field dressing must be done as soon as possible to ensure rapid body heat loss. Bacteria grow most rapidly in the range of temperatures between 40°F and 140°F, in some cases doubling in number every 20 minutes. This range of temperature is often called the “temperature danger zone [3].” Hunters in warmer climates should be particularly vigilant.

Too often most of the hunting preparation is focused on the kill and not enough on safely field dressing the game.  Dull knives and dirty prep areas can result in lacerations prone to infection. These types of infected wounds can be difficult to treat.  Additionally, many types of popular game are infected with Brucellosis, an infectious disease caused by bacteria.  Hunters merely handling the blood and organs of an infected animal while field dressing can become infected.  The infection may remain dormant up to a month after exposure and can cause severe illness requiring antibiotics. Symptoms include fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle and joint pain [4].

Field dressing preparation should include:

  • Clean, sharp knife
  • Resealable plastic storage bags
  • Whetstone or steel for sharpening
  • Cooler full of ice/snow
  • Rope or nylon cord
  • Disposable plastic gloves
  • Clean wipes or paper towels
  • Clean drinking water

Be safe and Happy Hunting!

References

  1. Huiras CM, Cogbill TH, Strutt PJ. Hunting-related injuries. Wis Med J. 1990 Oct;89(10):573-6.
  2. Bailey C. Here are the Five Most Common Hunting Injuries. Wide Open Spaces. 2017 March 29. http://www.wideopenspaces.com/these-are-the-5-most-common-hunting-injuries/
  3. PennState Extension. Proper Field Dressing and Handling of Wild Game and Fish. 2017. https://extension.psu.edu/proper-field-dressing-and-handling-of-wild-game-and-fish
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hunters: Protect Yourself from Brucellosis. https://www.cdc.gov/features/huntersbrucellosis/index.html

 Dr. Korsh Jafarnia is a Houston based board-certified, fellowship trained orthopedic surgeon specializing in the hand, wrist and elbow. He is recognized locally and nationally as a “top doctor” in his field and highly sought for his level of expertise in hand and upper extremity orthopedic care.

Staying Healthy Post Hurricane Harvey

As Texans begin to restore and rebuild following one of the most devastating storms in US history, we thought it would be a good time to talk about some of the health concerns that exist in this post flood environment and precautions everyone can take to stay healthy.

Harmful Elements in Flood Waters                                     Healthy Post Hurricane Harvey

Flood waters contain a variety of potentially harmful elements, many of which linger even after water begins to recede.  Aside from sheets of fire ants, snakes and other potential harmful critters, sharp metal bits, nails and glass shards are often prevalent and linger in debris.

In a recent interview with the Washington Post, Peter Hotez, dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, explained that sewage systems merge with flooding rain, introducing infectious human waste to streets and into flooded homes. What remains as sludge and a dirty film permeates everything it once washed over.  While the waters recede, the infectious elements remain and must be treated with caution (1).

And while it is not easy to predict which microbes will cause the greatest problems, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported 30 cases of MRSA, an antibiotic-resistant staphylococcus bacterium, in a group of New Orleans evacuees following Hurricane Katrina in September 2005. “Vibrio” pathogens, also known as “flesh-eating” bacteria, sickened two dozen people and killed six – in addition to reports of heat and infection-related skin rashes and red marks associated with biting mites (2).

Other Post Storm Concerns                                                                                             

The harmful material contained in flood waters and the contaminated and dangerous debris left in its wake are common concerns following a flooding storm (3), but there are also other lesser known concerns and areas of caution.  These include:

Scientific research is increasingly reporting the significant role that stress plays in our overall health – from a weakened immune system predisposing us to a host of illnesses, to increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries and conditions traditionally associated with physical stress only.  The type of stress that can come with the anticipation of such a storm, its duration and damaging aftermath is capable of threatening the health of an individual in ways many may not realize.  Referred to as “psychosocial” factors (frustration, dissatisfaction, depression and despair), the resulting stress has shown to induce physiological responses that can contribute to the development of musculoskeletal disorders (4).

Additionally, food and water quality that is compromised during power outages can challenge the healthiest among us if not approached with caution (5). Upper respiratory disorders associated with the rapidly growing mold following a Texas flood are a big concern.  Exposure to mold spores can prompt a rise in asthma and other respiratory illnesses.  The close proximity of individuals housed in shelters or working shoulder to shoulder in cleanup efforts can perpetuate respiratory illnesses and other communicable diseases.

Cuts and lacerations resulting from and/or exposed to flooded debris are particularly concerning to physicians.  The skin is the largest organ of the human body and should be protected as such.  Any opening creates vulnerability to not only the affected area but the entire body, particularly when exposed to potentially harmful microbes often found in flood water and debris as described earlier.

Reducing Risks and Staying Healthy Post Hurricane Harvey

There are several precautions that flood victims and those helping in their recovery should do to ensure everyone stays healthy post Hurricane Harvey.  These include:

 

  • Tetanus booster shots – Texas health officials urge people post Hurricane Harvey to get a tetanus booster shot to protect themselves against disease potentially entering the body through cuts/lacerations, unless one is current with their tetanus immunization (within 10 years). Even seemingly insignificant damage to a nail bed or cuticle should be treated as any other cut.
  • Proper garments and supplies – Clothing protecting arms and legs from flood sludge and lingering debris is strongly encouraged, along with rugged gloves for debris removal, rubber gloves for cleaning affected areas/items and face masks to minimize inhalation of potentially harmful elements.
  • Proper care of cuts/lacerations/skin rash – It is extremely important when working in flood environments to properly protect existing cuts and quickly clean and care for those occurring during cleanup. Risk of skin rashes resulting from the combination of sewage, chemicals and Houston heat can be reduced with the proper garments.
  • Adequate rest, relaxation – While it is difficult for those working to rebuild their homes and quickly reclaim their lives to contemplate taking time for themselves, it is a critical part of maintaining health and well-being. The rebuilding process for many will be a lengthy one requiring strong, healthy individuals.  Adequate rest, break from exposure to irritants and moments of relaxation/destressing can reduce risk of fatigue-related accidents/injuries, optimize mental outlook and maximize physical endurance.

 

When an injury is sustained or a respiratory or gastrointestinal irritation seems to linger, it is important to see a physician.  Postponing care can in some cases complicate an otherwise simple treatment or solution – and delay all recovery efforts.
Our health is truly one of our greatest assets. Let’s protect it!

 

 

References:

  1. The Health Dangers from Hurricane Harvey’s Floods and Houston’s Chemical Plants. Washington Post, September 1 2017.
  2. Infectious Disease and Dermatologic Conditions in Evacuees and Rescue Workers after Hurricane Katrina – Multiple States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). August – September, 2005.
  3. Stay Out of Flood Water, Texas Health Officials Urge. NPR – Houston Public Media News. August 28, 2017.
  4. Musculoskeletal Disorders – Psychosocial Factors. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Last updated August 13, 2012.
  5. Food and Water Safety during Power Outages and Floods. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Last updated August 25, 2017.

 

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