The Different Types of Fractures

A fracture is a break in the bone. Within the hand and upper extremity it can occur anywhere from the fingertip to the shoulder.

Among the most common fractures and dislocations of the hand and upper extremity include:

  • Finger Fractures
  • Distal Radius Fractures (also called Colles Fracture)
  • Scaphoid Fractures
  • Forearm Fractures
  • Clavicle Fractures (collar bone)

There are a number of different types of fractures – partial or complete, simple or compound, clean or shattered …each with their own classifications.  It is important to first define the type of fracture and its severity before determining the most effective treatment plan.

Fractures are defined by the severity of the break and the impact it imposes to surrounding tissue. Some fractures known as partial fractures may only cause a slight crack in the bone, while others may result in a complete break or shattered bone.

A fracture may also be either open or compound, which is a fracture that pierces through the skin creating an open wound.  A closed or “simple” fracture is a fracture that does not break through the skin.

Other classifications that help determine the best treatment plan for your type of fracture include:

  • Transverse Fracture – A fracture that goes across the bone and is situated at a right angle to the long axis of the bone.
  • Greenstick Fracture – A fracture situated on only one side of the bone, causing a bend but not a complete break. These are most commonly seen in children with more “pliable” bones.
  • Comminuted Fracture – A fracture that results in three or more bone fragments.
  • Intra-articular Fracture – A fracture with joint involvement.

Depending on the severity of the fracture, treatment may entail the non surgical realignment of the bone and casting, also referred to as closed reduction. Or surgical repair utilizing fixation support may be indicated.