Cowboy Casualties and the Rigors of Rodeo Life

While the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo has come and gone, the rodeo athletes who kept us captivated as they rode, roped and wrangled their way across the arena for the duration are on to a new city – and not even half way through their rodeo season.

The life of a rodeo athlete, many true cowboys at heart, is one of unyielding dedication and physicality.

Those who have participated since youth in rodeo events have built both strengths and vulnerabilities to the ongoing rigors of rodeo life. Proper mental and physical conditioning are key in avoiding serious injury.Rodeo Quote

While many of the injuries commonly associated with these athletes include concussions and fractures, others are the result of ongoing strain placed on the same limbs, ligaments and joints day in and day out for months at a time.

Many rodeo athletes begin in their teens, tie-down roping calves before progressing to adult wrangler, bull or bare back rider.  The years of hand and upper extremity strain predisposes this athlete to tendonitis in the hand, wrist, elbow and shoulder. Known as a repetitive stress or overuse condition, without proper treatment it can cause chronic inflammation, joint instability and eventually the early onset of arthritis.

Recognizing early signs of tendinopathic injuries and conditions and establishing an effective treatment program is key.

Tendonitis

Tendonitis (also spelled Tendinitis) is the inflammation of the tendons and other soft tissue connecting muscle to bone.  It is most often caused by repetitive movement, placing strain on the tendon and negatively impacting the affected area over time.  It may also occur following a sudden more serious injury such as a fracture or dislocation.

Tendonitis can affect different parts of the body.  Some of the commonly diagnosed upper extremity tendinopathies include Tennis Elbow, Golfer’s Elbow, deQuervain’s Tenosynovitis, Pitcher’s Shoulder and Swimmer’s Shoulder – named after the repetitive motion and sport implicated.  Though, many other activities and types of sports can result in one of these types of tendinopathies as well.

Among rodeo athletes, wrist tendonitis and tendon damage is particularly common, both as a result of the repetitive stress on the wrist and fractures and other trauma this athlearthritis_tendinitis_elbow_strainte sustains.

Symptoms

Symptoms of tendonitis may include;

  • Pain and swelling
  • A feeling of friction as the tendon moves
  • Warmth and redness about the affected area
  • A lump that develops along the tendon
  • Difficulty moving

A tendon rupture may result in a gap felt in the line of the tendon and would manifest with weakness or lack of function of that muscle.

 

Tendinosis

Tendinosis is often referred to as “chronic tendonitis” and is damage to a tendon at a cellular level.  In fact, “osis” represents a pathology of “chronic degeneration” without inflammation.  Key identifiers include disrupted collagen fibers within the tendon, increased cellularity and neovascularization.  This condition is thought to develop from micro tears, repeated injury and increases the risk of tendon rupture. While pain associated with this condition may be addressed similarly to that of tendonitis, emphasis is on stimulating collagen synthesis and breaking the cycle of tendon injury.

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (ECU) InstabilityWrist Tendonitis

The ECU tendon of the wrist attaches the ECU muscle to the bone and is responsible for straightening and rotating as well as gripping and pulling movement in the wrist and hand. While this tendon normally slides over the forearm (near the little finger), held in place by the retinaculum (ligament-like structure), damage to the area can cause it to slip in and out of place (sublux) or dislocate completely.

Treatment

Treatment for and recovery from a tendinopathic condition will depend on the type and severity.  While minimally invasive corticosteroid injections have proven effective in relieving pain, rest from the repetitive activity contributing to the condition is also indicated.  Stretching and strengthening exercises are also proving effective.

In severe cases, or when the tendon becomes displaced and nonsurgical treatment fails to resolve the problem, surgical intervention may be indicated.  Surgical intervention may include repair of the retinaculum, tendon lining (tendon sheath), or tendon – or to replace the tendon if it is torn.

Prevention

While many injuries in the life of a rodeo athlete cannot be avoided, damage can be reduced by staying fit and strong overall.  Strength and flexibility, combined with periods of rest and other activities involving different muscle groups will help reduce risk of injury and the impact of a tendinopathic condition.

According to long time rodeo professional and bareback rider Cody Goodwin, “every ride is like getting in a car wreck.”

“You have to be in pretty darn good shape, which is why I jog four miles every other day and lift weights every other day – to develop lean muscle mass,” said Goodwin.

“I take good care of my body, so that I can, at my age, continue to compete with 20 and 25-year-old riders,” added the 41-year-old rodeo veteran.

Dr. Korsh Jafarnia is the hand and upper extremity specialist at UT Physicians / Memorial Hermann IRONMAN Sports Medicine Institute (Memorial City and Texas Medical Center locations), 713.486.1700.

Baseball Fit – Preventive Exercises for a Winning Season

As weather warms and winter sports wind down, attention turns to the promise of a new baseball season and the championships ahead.

Now is the time to begin preparing.High School baseball

At the core of a successful team are strong players – physically strong, well rested and well conditioned.

Baseball is one of the few sports played almost daily throughout the entire season.  For young players beginning in little league, this amounts to a lot of plays by high school.  The frequency of repetitive stress injuries in youth baseball have increased over the years, particularly with the rise in special “elite” teams and extended seasons. This is most evident in young pitchers, on which much research has focused and for which Pitch Count guidelines have been developed.

Although baseball is not considered a contact sport, injuries can result from contact with the ball and other players, as well as poor form/technique, or an awkward movement during a play.

Some of the most common baseball injuries include:

  • Injuries in the shoulder and elbow (Little Leaguer’s Shoulder, Little Leaguer’s Elbow)
  • Knee injuries
  • Muscle pulls
  • Ligament injuries
  • Fractures (Finger, Distal Radius/Wrist)
  • Concussions 

While some injuries resulting from collision with another player are getting hit by the ball cannot be avoided, exercise can aid in reducing risks or preventing many repetitive stress related injuries.

Repetitive injuries are the result of repetitive use, stress and trauma to the soft tissues of the body (muscles, tendons, bones and joints), which are not given adequate time for proper healing. They are sometimes called cumulative trauma, repetitive stress or overuse injuries.

To avoid such repetitive stress conditions and muscle fatigue, players should have a dedicated fitness program – ideally one that is also specific to the position they play.  This should include overall strengthening and endurance, along with specific exercises to equally strengthen the muscles of the limb(s) most used. Such fitness programs should also include stretching and rest between play.

Exercise programs should also be age appropriate. Young, developing players are encouraged to build strength through resistance rather than weights. Involvement in other seasonal sports such as swimming and running can also provide excellent overall strengthening and endurance.

Strength and Conditioning Exercises – Upper Body

As a throwing sport, exercises for baseball concentrate heavily on the upper body – arms and shoulder. Core strength is also essential for pitching velocity, hitting power and running speed.

The key to any exercise program is the balanced/equal strengthening of muscle groups. For the upper body, this includes triceps/biceps, trapezius, rotator group, and deltoids.

Some Effective Arm, Shoulder and Core Exercises Include:

  • Resistance bands – These can be effective in building arm and shoulder strength. (View video on how these bands are used in exercise programs.)
  • Push ups – Traditional push ups are very effective in building upper body strength (arms, shoulders, back and core/abdominal muscles).
  • Pull ups – Using your own body weight/strength these work on the biceps, upper shoulder and back, upper abdominals and obliques.
  • The Plank – strengthens the core, lower back and oblique muscles. (View video demonstration of the Plank.)

Exercises to Improve Leg Strength

Lower body strength and conditioning is as important as upper body training for young athletes. Leg strength impacts throwing velocity, bat speed/force and running speed.

Squats, lunges and running are among the most effective ways to strengthen the lower body.

Stretching

Stretching is a very important part of an exercise program for athletes in any sport. During exercise and play muscles contract. When muscles contract, they produce tension at the point where the muscle is connected to the tendon. Stretching helps lengthen, relax and restore muscles to their natural state.

Stretching following activity is as important as stretching while warming up before practice and play.

Some easy, yet effective stretches include:

  • Elbow Pulls – Raise the right arm as though asking a question and drop the forearm behind the head though leaving the elbow in the air. Pull the elbow to the left with the left arm until you feel the stretch, hold briefly then repeat several times. Do the same on the opposite side.
  • Cross Body Arm Pulls – Straighten your right arm and pull it across the front of your body, cradling the forearm and elbow with the left hand, pull the arm towards the left across the body until you feel the stretch. Hold the stretch briefly, then repeat on the opposite side.
  • Shoulder Stretch – Lay face down on a floor mat and stretch arms overhead to form a “Y,” with palms facing down on the floor. With forehead on the ground, retract shoulder blades while lifting arms off the ground (still outstretched). Hold for a couple of seconds while squeezing the shoulder blades together. Be careful not to “shrug” the shoulders up. Return to starting position and perform several sets of 10 repetitions. To work the back a little differently, perform this same exercise with the arms straight out to your sides, forming the shape of a “T.”
  • Runner’s Lunge – Position into a deep lunge on your right leg, drop the knee of your left leg and lean forward over the right quad until you feel the stretch, hold for several seconds. Repeat on opposite leg.
  • Hamstring Stretch – Stand flat on the floor with feet a little less than hip width apart. Lean forward and place palm of your hands flat on the floor just in front of your feet, hold for several seconds.

TOP PREVENTION TIP

Resting is as important as any of the components in a successful training program.