Staying Healthy Post Hurricane Harvey

As Texans begin to restore and rebuild following one of the most devastating storms in US history, we thought it would be a good time to talk about some of the health concerns that exist in this post flood environment and precautions everyone can take to stay healthy.

Harmful Elements in Flood Waters                                     Healthy Post Hurricane Harvey

Flood waters contain a variety of potentially harmful elements, many of which linger even after water begins to recede.  Aside from sheets of fire ants, snakes and other potential harmful critters, sharp metal bits, nails and glass shards are often prevalent and linger in debris.

In a recent interview with the Washington Post, Peter Hotez, dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, explained that sewage systems merge with flooding rain, introducing infectious human waste to streets and into flooded homes. What remains as sludge and a dirty film permeates everything it once washed over.  While the waters recede, the infectious elements remain and must be treated with caution (1).

And while it is not easy to predict which microbes will cause the greatest problems, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported 30 cases of MRSA, an antibiotic-resistant staphylococcus bacterium, in a group of New Orleans evacuees following Hurricane Katrina in September 2005. “Vibrio” pathogens, also known as “flesh-eating” bacteria, sickened two dozen people and killed six – in addition to reports of heat and infection-related skin rashes and red marks associated with biting mites (2).

Other Post Storm Concerns                                                                                             

The harmful material contained in flood waters and the contaminated and dangerous debris left in its wake are common concerns following a flooding storm (3), but there are also other lesser known concerns and areas of caution.  These include:

Scientific research is increasingly reporting the significant role that stress plays in our overall health – from a weakened immune system predisposing us to a host of illnesses, to increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries and conditions traditionally associated with physical stress only.  The type of stress that can come with the anticipation of such a storm, its duration and damaging aftermath is capable of threatening the health of an individual in ways many may not realize.  Referred to as “psychosocial” factors (frustration, dissatisfaction, depression and despair), the resulting stress has shown to induce physiological responses that can contribute to the development of musculoskeletal disorders (4).

Additionally, food and water quality that is compromised during power outages can challenge the healthiest among us if not approached with caution (5). Upper respiratory disorders associated with the rapidly growing mold following a Texas flood are a big concern.  Exposure to mold spores can prompt a rise in asthma and other respiratory illnesses.  The close proximity of individuals housed in shelters or working shoulder to shoulder in cleanup efforts can perpetuate respiratory illnesses and other communicable diseases.

Cuts and lacerations resulting from and/or exposed to flooded debris are particularly concerning to physicians.  The skin is the largest organ of the human body and should be protected as such.  Any opening creates vulnerability to not only the affected area but the entire body, particularly when exposed to potentially harmful microbes often found in flood water and debris as described earlier.

Reducing Risks and Staying Healthy Post Hurricane Harvey

There are several precautions that flood victims and those helping in their recovery should do to ensure everyone stays healthy post Hurricane Harvey.  These include:

 

  • Tetanus booster shots – Texas health officials urge people post Hurricane Harvey to get a tetanus booster shot to protect themselves against disease potentially entering the body through cuts/lacerations, unless one is current with their tetanus immunization (within 10 years). Even seemingly insignificant damage to a nail bed or cuticle should be treated as any other cut.
  • Proper garments and supplies – Clothing protecting arms and legs from flood sludge and lingering debris is strongly encouraged, along with rugged gloves for debris removal, rubber gloves for cleaning affected areas/items and face masks to minimize inhalation of potentially harmful elements.
  • Proper care of cuts/lacerations/skin rash – It is extremely important when working in flood environments to properly protect existing cuts and quickly clean and care for those occurring during cleanup. Risk of skin rashes resulting from the combination of sewage, chemicals and Houston heat can be reduced with the proper garments.
  • Adequate rest, relaxation – While it is difficult for those working to rebuild their homes and quickly reclaim their lives to contemplate taking time for themselves, it is a critical part of maintaining health and well-being. The rebuilding process for many will be a lengthy one requiring strong, healthy individuals.  Adequate rest, break from exposure to irritants and moments of relaxation/destressing can reduce risk of fatigue-related accidents/injuries, optimize mental outlook and maximize physical endurance.

 

When an injury is sustained or a respiratory or gastrointestinal irritation seems to linger, it is important to see a physician.  Postponing care can in some cases complicate an otherwise simple treatment or solution – and delay all recovery efforts.
Our health is truly one of our greatest assets. Let’s protect it!

 

 

References:

  1. The Health Dangers from Hurricane Harvey’s Floods and Houston’s Chemical Plants. Washington Post, September 1 2017.
  2. Infectious Disease and Dermatologic Conditions in Evacuees and Rescue Workers after Hurricane Katrina – Multiple States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). August – September, 2005.
  3. Stay Out of Flood Water, Texas Health Officials Urge. NPR – Houston Public Media News. August 28, 2017.
  4. Musculoskeletal Disorders – Psychosocial Factors. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Last updated August 13, 2012.
  5. Food and Water Safety during Power Outages and Floods. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Last updated August 25, 2017.

 

Other Educational Links

 

 

It’s No Fish Tale – These Uncommon Hand & Upper Extremity Fishing Injuries Can Really Happen!

Located on the Gulf of Mexico and home to hundreds of lakes, it’s no wonder that the Texas coast is the playground to fishing enthusiasts far and wide.

Barracuda

unhook stingray2But even the seasoned sportsman can fall victim to some unlikely fishing injuries affecting the hand and upper extremity. In fact, fishermen (and women) put themselves in danger every time they come into contact with marine life – unpredictable behavior/aggressive and often forceful nature of a catch, prevalence of less commonly treated bacteria, unsanitary tools/equipment, poor wound care – all contributing to some common and not so common injuries that hand specialists see in a region like the Texas Gulf Coast.

Some common fishing injuries and conditions with which a Texas hand surgeon is all too familiar include:

fillet_2Many of these common injuries and conditions are treated non surgically and follow the same treatment protocol as any other patient with the same diagnosis – regardless of the cause.

Uncommon Hand & Upper Extremity Fishing Injuries and Conditions

Though there is very little that surprises a hand specialist practicing in “sportsman’s paradise,” an unusual injury associated with fishing will occasionally make its way to a Texas medical clinic.

Some of these uncommon injuries and conditions include:

  • Sting Ray Laceration
  • Fish Bite / Impalement
  • Fish Handler’s Disease / Bacterial Infection
  • Lodged Fish Bones, Fin Spine 

Unlike other injuries that break the skin, these types of fishing injuries are particularly concerning.  Fish and other marine life carry bacterial infections within their bodies, as well as on their skin, which can affect humans if certain precautions are not taken immediately. Some types of bacteria found in marine life are not commonly seen and do not respond to conventional antibiotics frequently used for infections.

Additionally, some marine life such as the Sting Ray utilize defense mechanisms that require special attention when used against a fisherman.

Sting Ray Laceration
While many sting ray injuries involve an inadvertent encounter between a foot or other lower extremity and a sting ray’s barb, some have occurred to the hand or wrist while trying to remove a sting ray from a fishing net or line.

These types of lacerations require more than bandaging.  Not only do sting ray barbs pierce like a weapon, all sting rays are armed with at least one serrated venomous spine at the base of their whip-like tail.  Short-tail sting rays have two tail spines: a slender spike in front of a large, jagged bayonet (1).

In addition to possible damage to muscle, tendons and nerves that can occur from the physical impalement of a sting ray barb, its venom is comprised of many different substances that can cause tissue to break down and die.
Some of the symptoms that Sting Ray venom can cause include:

 

  • Immediate and severe pain radiating up the affected limb
  • Bleeding and swelling in the affected area
  • Sweating
  • Faintness, dizziness and weakness
  • Low blood pressure
  • Salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  • Headache
  • Shortness of breath (2)

 

Medical attention is recommended for all sting ray injuries.  Minimally, the wound will be cleaned with warm water to remove the venom and a tetanus booster given if it has been more than five years since the last tetanus booster. Tetanus prevention is required if the patient has never had a tetanus vaccination.  Antibiotics may also be required, and depending on the severity of the injury and amount of damage sustained (often the result of the delay in seeking treatment), surgical intervention to repair soft tissue damage and/or a period of rehabilitation may be required to restore strength to the injured limb (2).

Fish Bite and Impalement
While not every fish injury comes with a venomous double blow, the high risk of bacterial infection and soft tissue damage can be just as serious.  Many fish have sharp teeth, tails and pointed features that can easily break the skin.  Wrestling the unwilling catch onto the boat or beach can leave some sportsmen a bit worse for the wear.

 

Aside from the bacterial concerns that come with marine life, the forceful impact from a sharp feature of the fish can result in soft tissue damage that may require surgical repair and/or months of rehabilitation to restore hand and upper extremity function – as the hand alone is comprised of approximately 34 muscles, 120 known ligaments, and 50 nerves!

 

These types of deep puncture wounds or lacerations in the hand are also at high risk of infection and should be monitored closely.  A delay in the appropriate treatment can lead to complicated tenosynovitis and horseshoe abscess.  Additionally, marine life bacterial infections resulting from Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum) do not respond to some conventional antibiotic treatment such as amoxicillin (3).

Fish Handler’s Disease
Not every fishing-related Mycobacterium marinum infection is the result of an obvious injury/wound.  A condition known as Fish Handler’s Disease can impact those frequently handling fish and generally affects the hands.  Any inconspicuous cut or small opening on the skin can allow the bacteria to enter the body.  The bacteria’s inability to proliferate in the warm body confines it to the affected area.

 

Common symptoms include swelling, tenderness, and bluish-purple spots. Fish Handler’s Disease is treated with special antibiotics used specifically for this type of bacterial infection.  Recovery can take months.

Lodged Fish Bones, Fin Spine
Occasionally in the handling of fish a fish bone or fin spine can lodge in the hand. Though this may not be painful or immediately worrisome to the injured party, these types of injuries are concerning.  Such injuries often leave residual fragments of foreign organic matter in the soft tissue, which can cause secondary infections such as Staphylococci and Streptococci (4).

 

Typically, x-rays are used first to try and identify a foreign body in the tissue, though are not always successful in doing so.  An MRI may be indicated to identify fine fin spines and tiny bones lodged in the body’s tissue. The surgical removal of the foreign body is important.  Failure to seek and remove the foreign body may lead to persistence of infection (4). Multiple surgical procedures may be required, and the patient is put on antibiotics to prevent infection. Physical therapy may be required after surgery to regain mobility of the hand.

 

If this type of injury goes untreated it can result in permanent disability and hospitalization for infection. Though the area may look as if it has healed, but is still tender, swollen, discolored, or abnormal in any way, individuals are urged to see a hand specialist.

 

Prevention and Precaution
Understanding the unique aspects of the marine life occupying the waters you’re sporting and utilizing protective gloves and garments while fishing can go a long way in injury prevention.  As the largest organ of the human body, our skin serves as a protective barrier.  When any area is compromised, our entire body is compromised. Individuals with other health conditions, such as diabetes or immune deficiency disorders should be particularly cautious and consult a hand specialist for proper wound care.

If not addressed properly, even seemingly minor fishing injuries can result in serious infection, lingering weakness or permanent disability – inhibiting participation in the sport you love.

 

References

 

Hoverboard Hazards

The exciting new phenomena of “hoverboarding” has made hoverboards one of the most popular technological “toys” on the market today.  Intended for agile adolescents, its appeal has also drawn parents and other adults nostalgic for those days gone by.

The technology of the hoverboard, known as a smartboard or balance board as well, doesn’t actually create a hover but rather a forward and backward motion on a sideways skateboard of sorts, with either a large single center wheel or two smaller ones at each end.  It is automated, can reach a formidable speed of 16 mph and relies on body movement for navigation. It is basically a hands free, self-balancing electric scooter.

Concern over hoverboard safety grows amid increase in injuries.

Concern over hoverboard safety grows amid increase in injuries.

They have become the vehicle of choice for students travelling around campus and preteens maneuvering around the house and down the street to visit friends.  They light up, are stealth quiet, move as fast as one’s imagination …. and leave hands free for any other activity desired on the fly.

Unfortunately, while the mainstream hoverboard never actually leaves the ground, its ability to send riders airborne is causing increasing concern.

In fact, the Consumer Product Safety Commission has reported receiving dozens of hoverboard-related injuries from across the United States.  Houston hospitals have also reported in a recent Associated Press article seeing a sharp increase in the number of hoverboard accidents sending adult and young riders alike to the ER and urgent care clinics.

Colleges are not only restricting their use on campus, as a result of the injury risk (to the user and passers by) but also the fire hazard their electrical system poses.  The hoverboard fire hazard is covered extensively in other hoverboard reports.

Among the most common musculoskeletal injuries seen from hoverboard use include concussions, fractures, contusions and abrasions.

Concussions

While most frequently seen in sports such as football and soccer, concussions are increasingly reported in hoverboard accidents.  With no recommended safety wear, the speed and maneuverability of the device is resulting in high impact falls and collisions – resulting in concussions. The primary symptoms of a concussion include:

  • Headache
  • Trouble concentrating, feeling “foggy”
  • Nausea
  • Delayed reaction times
  • Dizziness, lightheadedness
  • Sensitivity with bright lights or loud sounds
  • Irritability

 If a concussion is suspected, an evaluation should be conducted by a physician and hoverboard and other balancing activities should be avoided.

Fractures

Wrist fractures are among the most common types of fractures seen in hoverboard accidents – distal radius fractures among the most common type of wrist fracture.  This is often the result of breaking a fall or harsh impact with an outstretched arm. Other hoverboard fractures and dislocations have been seen in the fingers. Symptoms of a fracture or dislocation can be evident with extreme pain, swelling and slight disfigurement or subtle with only slight swelling and pain.

Most wrist fractures and finger fractures and dislocations can be treated nonsurgically, depending on the severity of the fracture or dislocation.  A splint or other bracing may be indicated, along with anti-inflammatory medication and rest/refrain from extracurricular activity.

Contusions and Abrasions

Collisions causing contusions and abrasions are frequently reported on hoverboards in the absence of safety gear. While most are minor cuts and scraps, some may result in open wounds requiring stiches, while potentially damaging nerves and other soft tissue.  Swollen, discolored injuries lasting more than a month should be further evaluated by a physician.

Preventing Hoverboard Injuries

The lack of safety standards and recommended safety gear/wear is a concern among hoverboard retailers and healthcare providers alike.  But, parents do not have to wait until such recommendations are established.  If a hoverboard is in your family’s future, take the proper precautions. As with any sport, safety gear recommended or not, will provide a bit of assurance.

Cyclists travelling at much less speeds not only have both hands and legs navigating a two-wheeled structure designed for the road, but also helmets, gloves, shoes and other gear designed for safety and the sport. This is also true of rollerbladers and skateboarders. Invest in the safety of your hoverboard rider and purchase protective safety gear.

Help young riders understand the potential risks for injury and encourage that they err on the side of caution to avoid the ER.

Have fun and be safe!

Read a hoverboard article from a young contributing writer.

 

Defending Against Turf Trauma

Football is now more than half way through the season, and we’ve seen our share of sprains, fractures, and concussions.  Many of these injuries have been discussed at length, so we thought we would talk about a growing concern; injuries occurring from or made worse as a result of the synthetic turf our kids are playing on today. Turf Concerns in Sports

Synthetic Turf Concerns

At the professional level, there is concern that the difference in buoyancy and other  attributes of synthetic infilled turf may contribute to increased risk of ligament injuries and overall musculoskeletal wear, resulting in prolonged fatigue and recovery between games. While studies continue to assess these concerns without conclusion, debates grow in women’s soccer and are capturing the attention of parents of young athletes playing on artificial turf across the United States [1,2].

There have also been a number of studies assessing increased risk of infection in football associated with playing on synthetic turf.  While studies are ongoing, there are currently no scientific findings to conclude that synthetic turf results in a higher number of infections than natural turf.  The abrasive nature of this artificial turf, though, has certainly resulted in an increased number of severe abrasions and lacerations of the skin, leaving players more vulnerable to infection.

The surface temperatures of synthetic turf are also significantly higher than that of natural grass turf when exposed to sunlight (Buskirk et al., 1971; Koon et al., 1971; and Kandelin et al. 1976, Devitt et al., 2007, McNitt et al., 2007).  This may contribute to increased bacteria growth.

Turf concerns have been noted as early as 2003 when Connecticut’s Department of Public Health launched an investigation into infections in a Connecticut college football team [3]. Of the 100 players studied, those with turf burns had an infection risk seven times higher than their scraped teammates. Cornerbacks and wide receivers, who frequently come into contact with other players, accounted for most cases. Improperly treated whirlpools could also have helped spread the bacteria.

When these bacteria become resistant to antibiotics they can spread and cause pneumonia, bone infections, or life-threatening infections of the bloodstream that are difficult to treat.

Reducing Risk for Turf Related Skin Infections

Each football season, we see a growing number of skin infections related to synthetic turf burns, abrasions and lacerations.  While many of these infections can be treated with antibiotics, those more resistant require special attention.  Parents and coaches are encouraged to educate their athletes on preventive practices to avoid the dangers of a serious skin infection.

Signs of a Turf-Related Skin Infection

Two of the most common skin infections associated with turf, both natural and synthetic, are Staph (staphylococcus bacteria) and MRSA (resistant staph).

Staph is one of the most common forms of infections that can develop from a turf wound.  This type of skin infection, also referred to as cellulitis, may or may not result from an open sore/wound.

Possible Symptoms of a Skin Staph Infection include: 

  • An area of tenderness, swelling, and redness
  • Inflammation — redness, warmth, swelling, and pain
  • Fever and sweats, as well as swelling in the area (if the infection has spread)

MRSA is a more serious type of staph infection resistant to many of the antibiotics used to treat staph and other common infections.  These types of infections require special antibiotic therapy.

Possible Symptoms of a MRSA Infection include:

  • General feeling of poor health (malaise)
  • Skin rash
  • Headaches
  • Muscle aches
  • Chills / Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pains

Treatment of Staph and MRSA Infections

Treatment for Staph infection generally entails a course of antibiotics.  Treatment for MRSA requires a special class of antibiotics or a combination of multiple antibiotics – depending on the patient’s response and the severity of the infection.

Reducing Risks of Skin Infections

The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has outlined the five primary conditions for contracting and spreading MRSA and Staph infection.  Referred to as the Five “C’s”:

  1. Crowding
  2. Contact – frequent skin to skin
  3. Compromised Skin (cuts, scrapes, abrasions)
  4. Contaminated Items (sweaty towels, clothes, mats, synthetic turf)
  5. Cleanliness

For the prevention of skin infections, it is important that athletes:

  • Keep wounds covered and contained
  • Shower immediately after participation
  • Shower before using whirlpools
  • Wash and dry uniforms after each use
  • Report possible infections to coach, athletic trainer, school nurse, other healthcare providers, or parents

Other CDC recommendations addressing MRSA and Staph infection in sports can be found on their website: http://www.cdc.gov/mrsa/community/team-hc-providers/index.html .

References

1.) Meyers MC, Barnhill BS.  Incidence, causes and severity of high school football injuries on FieldTurf versus natural grass:  a 5-year prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2004 Oct-Nov;32(7):1626-38.

2.) http://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/soccer/2014/10/15/alex-morgan-us-women-artificial-turf-world-cup/17295011/

3.) Begier et al. 2004. A High-Morbidity Outbreak of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Players on a College Football Team, Facilitated by Cosmetic Body Shaving and Turf Burns. Clin Inf Dis. 2004;39:1446-53.

(Keywords:  synthetic turf, artificial turf injuries, lacerations, Staph infection, MRSA, sports injuries, skin infections)

Baseball Fit – Preventive Exercises for a Winning Season

As weather warms and winter sports wind down, attention turns to the promise of a new baseball season and the championships ahead.

Now is the time to begin preparing.High School baseball

At the core of a successful team are strong players – physically strong, well rested and well conditioned.

Baseball is one of the few sports played almost daily throughout the entire season.  For young players beginning in little league, this amounts to a lot of plays by high school.  The frequency of repetitive stress injuries in youth baseball have increased over the years, particularly with the rise in special “elite” teams and extended seasons. This is most evident in young pitchers, on which much research has focused and for which Pitch Count guidelines have been developed.

Although baseball is not considered a contact sport, injuries can result from contact with the ball and other players, as well as poor form/technique, or an awkward movement during a play.

Some of the most common baseball injuries include:

  • Injuries in the shoulder and elbow (Little Leaguer’s Shoulder, Little Leaguer’s Elbow)
  • Knee injuries
  • Muscle pulls
  • Ligament injuries
  • Fractures (Finger, Distal Radius/Wrist)
  • Concussions 

While some injuries resulting from collision with another player are getting hit by the ball cannot be avoided, exercise can aid in reducing risks or preventing many repetitive stress related injuries.

Repetitive injuries are the result of repetitive use, stress and trauma to the soft tissues of the body (muscles, tendons, bones and joints), which are not given adequate time for proper healing. They are sometimes called cumulative trauma, repetitive stress or overuse injuries.

To avoid such repetitive stress conditions and muscle fatigue, players should have a dedicated fitness program – ideally one that is also specific to the position they play.  This should include overall strengthening and endurance, along with specific exercises to equally strengthen the muscles of the limb(s) most used. Such fitness programs should also include stretching and rest between play.

Exercise programs should also be age appropriate. Young, developing players are encouraged to build strength through resistance rather than weights. Involvement in other seasonal sports such as swimming and running can also provide excellent overall strengthening and endurance.

Strength and Conditioning Exercises – Upper Body

As a throwing sport, exercises for baseball concentrate heavily on the upper body – arms and shoulder. Core strength is also essential for pitching velocity, hitting power and running speed.

The key to any exercise program is the balanced/equal strengthening of muscle groups. For the upper body, this includes triceps/biceps, trapezius, rotator group, and deltoids.

Some Effective Arm, Shoulder and Core Exercises Include:

  • Resistance bands – These can be effective in building arm and shoulder strength. (View video on how these bands are used in exercise programs.)
  • Push ups – Traditional push ups are very effective in building upper body strength (arms, shoulders, back and core/abdominal muscles).
  • Pull ups – Using your own body weight/strength these work on the biceps, upper shoulder and back, upper abdominals and obliques.
  • The Plank – strengthens the core, lower back and oblique muscles. (View video demonstration of the Plank.)

Exercises to Improve Leg Strength

Lower body strength and conditioning is as important as upper body training for young athletes. Leg strength impacts throwing velocity, bat speed/force and running speed.

Squats, lunges and running are among the most effective ways to strengthen the lower body.

Stretching

Stretching is a very important part of an exercise program for athletes in any sport. During exercise and play muscles contract. When muscles contract, they produce tension at the point where the muscle is connected to the tendon. Stretching helps lengthen, relax and restore muscles to their natural state.

Stretching following activity is as important as stretching while warming up before practice and play.

Some easy, yet effective stretches include:

  • Elbow Pulls – Raise the right arm as though asking a question and drop the forearm behind the head though leaving the elbow in the air. Pull the elbow to the left with the left arm until you feel the stretch, hold briefly then repeat several times. Do the same on the opposite side.
  • Cross Body Arm Pulls – Straighten your right arm and pull it across the front of your body, cradling the forearm and elbow with the left hand, pull the arm towards the left across the body until you feel the stretch. Hold the stretch briefly, then repeat on the opposite side.
  • Shoulder Stretch – Lay face down on a floor mat and stretch arms overhead to form a “Y,” with palms facing down on the floor. With forehead on the ground, retract shoulder blades while lifting arms off the ground (still outstretched). Hold for a couple of seconds while squeezing the shoulder blades together. Be careful not to “shrug” the shoulders up. Return to starting position and perform several sets of 10 repetitions. To work the back a little differently, perform this same exercise with the arms straight out to your sides, forming the shape of a “T.”
  • Runner’s Lunge – Position into a deep lunge on your right leg, drop the knee of your left leg and lean forward over the right quad until you feel the stretch, hold for several seconds. Repeat on opposite leg.
  • Hamstring Stretch – Stand flat on the floor with feet a little less than hip width apart. Lean forward and place palm of your hands flat on the floor just in front of your feet, hold for several seconds.

TOP PREVENTION TIP

Resting is as important as any of the components in a successful training program.

Summer Sideliners

Common summer injuries of the hand, wrist and elbow

As we hike, bike, raft and climb our way through summer adventure, mishaps are bound to happen.  Some of the most common we see include wrist fractures, tennis elbow syndrome and cuts and lacerations to the hand.

Recognizing and treating mishaps that may occur while maximizing these brief few summer months can make a difference in how ready we are for all that awaits us in the fall.

Wrist Fractures

The wrist is susceptible to injury, often used as a first line of defense to break a fall, shield us from impact and soften a blow.  The wrist is comprised of eight small carpal bones, two forearm bones (radius and ulna) and four articulations or joints – which allow the wrist to bend and straighten, move from side-to-side and twist with a broad range of motion.  A force to the hand and wrist may result in a fracture of any one or several of these bones.  While a fracture to one of the smaller carpal bones may only be visible on x-ray, more common distal radius fractures are usually evident – crooked or deformed in appearance.  A wrist fracture may cause pain and swelling and should be immediately addressed.

Tennis Elbow Syndrome (Lateral Epicondylitis)

Though named for the sport frequently causing the condition in tennis players, Tennis Elbow Syndrome is in fact most often caused by everyday activity and diagnosed in those who have never played tennis.  Affecting the outside (lateral) portion of the elbow, tennis elbow syndrome is considered an “overuse” condition.  It is the result of strain placed on the muscles and tendons that attach to the bone.  Also caused by trauma, tennis elbow syndrome can cause pain with gripping, lifting and grasping.

Cuts and Lacerations

Cuts and lacerations to the hand are very common during the summer months as our hands are integral in most outdoor activity and projects. Tendon lacerations are also often the result of trauma to the hand or fingers.  Tendon lacerations may affect either the flexor or extensor tendons.  These types of lacerations often also result in other deep structure damage and require surgical repair.  The cut ends of a tendon must be brought back together in order for the cells inside the tendon to begin the healing/repair process.  Preventing infection in an open wound is also a primary concern with these types of injuries.